Photographies de personnes sur un site internet étranger

  • Posted by Loïc Panhaleux
  • On 28 novembre 2014
  • 117 Comments
  • droit d'auteur

La publication de photographies de personnes sur un site internet étranger constitue une atteinte au droit à l’image et à la vie privée.

Technologie

La Cour de cassation a considéré que, sur le plan du droit international privé, cette question relevait de la responsabilité délictuelle. En conséquence, il convient d’appliquer les règles de conflits de lois applicables en matière de responsabilité extra-contractuelle.

Le Règlement CE n° 864/2007 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 11 juillet 2007 sur la loi applicable aux obligations non contractuelles (“Rome II”) (JOUE, 31 juill. 2007,L 199/40) est entré en application le 11 janvier 2009 (v. Art. 31 et 32). Obligatoire dans tous les Etats membres, sauf le Danemark (art. 1§ 4), il s’applique aux faits générateurs de dommages survenus après son entrée en vigueur, soit après le 20 août 2007 ( art. 31).

Toutefois, son article 1 §2 g) exclut de son application « les obligations non contractuelles découlant d’atteintes à la vie privée et aux droits de la personnalité, y compris la diffamation ». Aucune autre convention internationale ne s’applique. Il convient donc d’en revenir à la solution de la Cour de cassation. Selon les règles de conflit françaises, le critère de rattachement est “lex loci delicti” : la loi applicable est celle du lieu du fait dommageable. Faut-il considérer le lieu du dommage ou le lieu du fait générateur ? Les décisions les plus récentes de la Cour de cassation énoncent que ce lieu s’entend aussi bien de celui du fait générateur du dommage que celui du lieu de réalisation de ce dernier (Civ. 1re, 28 oct. 2003, Bull. Civ. I, n° 219).

Dès lors que le dommage est subi par la victime en France, la loi française peut s’appliquer. Mais elle ne s’appliquera en principe qu’aux “dommages français”. En effet, la cour de cassation a estimé qu’en présence de la pluralité des lieux de commission de ceux-ci, la loi française, en tant que loi du  » lieu du préjudice « , n’a pas vocation exclusive à régir l’ensemble du litige en l’absence d’un rattachement plus étroit, non démontré, avec la France (Chambre civile 1, 5 mars 2002 Bulletin 2002 I N° 75 p. 58).

Toutefois, la cour de cassation a aussi considéré qu’en cas de publication, il convient d’appliquer non la seule loi du lieu de la publication mais aussi envisager l’application de la loi où le dommage a été subi (14 janv. 1997 ,rev. Cr. Dip 1997. 504,note Bischoff) et elle recherche parfois “le pays qui présente les liens les plus étroits avec le fait dommageable”(civ. 1re 11 mai 1999, mobil north sea Ltd , rev. crit. Dip 2000.199). Cette même approche a été retenue dans un arrêt relatif à la rupture des relations commerciales ( Com. 25 mars 2014, n° 12-29534, Bull. civ. IV, n° 58). Lorsque le lieu de la publication, le lieu où le dommage est subi, la nationalité de la victime et son domicile sont situés en France, le juge français pourra appliquer la loi française.

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