Liens hypertexte et droit d’auteur

  • Posted by admin
  • On 12 avril 2014
  • 51 Comments

Copyright (français)Un hyperlien  renvoie à une oeuvre protégée par le droit d’auteur. Est-ce répréhensible du point de vue de ce droit? La CJUE a répondu par la négative à cette question dans un arrêt du 13 février 2014 (CJUE, 13 fév. 2014, Svensson et ae, C-466/12). En l’espèce, des journalistes avaient rédigé des articles de presse publiés, d’une part, dans un journal et, d’autre part, sur un site Internet où ils étaient librement accessibles. Une société exploitant un site Internet fournissait à ses clients des listes de liens Internet cliquables vers des articles publiés par d’autres sites Internet.Les titulaires de droit d’auteur ont agi contre cette seconde société en vue d’obtenir une indemnisation au motif que cette société aurait exploité, sans leur autorisation, certains de leurs articles, en les mettant à la disposition de ses clients.

La Cour a été interrogée sur le point de savoir si l’article 3, paragraphe 1, de la directive 2001/29 du 22 mai 2001 sur l’harmonisation de certains aspects du droit d’auteur et des droits voisins dans la société de l’information doit être interprété en ce sens que constitue un acte de communication au public, tel que visé à cette disposition, la fourniture, sur un site Internet, de liens cliquables vers des œuvres protégées disponibles sur un autre site Internet, étant entendu que, sur cet autre site, les œuvres concernées sont librement accessibles.

La Cour admet que « le fait de fournir des liens cliquables vers des œuvres protégées doit être qualifié de «mise à disposition» et, par conséquent, d’«acte de communication», au sens de ladite disposition ».

Elle considère ensuite qu’ un acte de communication, tel que celui effectué par le gérant d’un site Internet au moyen de liens cliquables, vise l’ensemble des utilisateurs potentiels du site que cette personne gère, soit un nombre indéterminé et assez important de destinataires » et que dès lors, cela peut être qualifié de communication à un public.

Toutefois, ce public n’est pas nouveau car ce n’est pas « un public n’ayant pas été pris en compte par les titulaires du droit d’auteur, lorsqu’ils ont autorisé la communication initiale au public ». Selon la Cour :  » lorsque l’ensemble des utilisateurs d’un autre site auxquels les œuvres en cause ont été communiquées au moyen d’un lien cliquable pouvaient directement accéder à ces œuvres sur le site sur lequel celles-ci ont été communiquées initialement, sans intervention du gérant de cet autre site, les utilisateurs du site géré par ce dernier doivent être considérés comme des destinataires potentiels de la communication initiale et donc comme faisant partie du public pris en compte par les titulaires du droit d’auteur lorsque ces derniers ont autorisé la communication initiale. »  En conséquence, l’autorisation des titulaires du droit d’auteur ne s’impose pas à une communication au public telle que celle au principal.

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